16th April 1771


[Cape of Good Hope to England]

At 2 o'clock in the P.M. saw a large Ship behind the Island, under French Colours, standing into Table Bay; at 3 weigh'd with a Light breeze at South-East, and put to Sea; at 4 departed this Life Mr. Robert Molineux Master, a young man of good parts, but had unfortunately given himself up to Extravagancy and intemperance, which brought on disorders that put a Period to his Life. At 6 we had the Table Mountain and the Penguin Island in one bearing South-South-East, distant from the latter about 4 or 5 Leagues; had it calm most part of the night. In the morning a light breeze sprung up Southerly, with which we steer'd North-West; at noon we were by Observation in Latitude 33 degrees 30 minutes South. The Table Mountain bore South 54 degrees East, distant 14 Leagues. N.B. The Table Mountain lies directly over the Cape Town, from which last I take my departure; it lies in the Latitude of 33 degrees 56 minutes South, and Longitude 341 degrees 37 minutes West from Greenwich.

15th April 1771

[At Anchor, Table Bay]
None of the Ships in the Offing are yet arrived. Desirous as we must be of hearing news from England, I detemmin'd not to wait the arrival of these Ships, but took the advantage of a breeze of wind from the West-South-West; weigh'd and stood out of the Bay, saluted with 13 Guns, which Complement was return'd both by the Castle and Dutch Commodore. The Europa Saluted us as we passed her, which we return'd. This Ship was to have sail'd with or before us, but not liking the opportunity she lay fast. At 5 in the Evening anchor'd under Penguin or Robin Island in 10 fathoms water, the Island extending from West-North-West to South-South-West, distant 1 1/2 or 2 miles.

In the Morning saw a Ship standing into Table Bay, under English Colours, which we took to be an Indiaman; at Noon Latitude observed 33 degrees 49 minutes South; Cape Town South 20 degrees East, distant 7 miles. As we could not Sail in the Morning for want of wind, I sent a Boat to the Island for a few Trifling Articles we had forgot to take in at the Cape, but the people on shore would not permit her to land, so that she return'd as she went, and I gave myself no further Trouble at it. Mr. Banks, who was in the Boat, was of opinion that it was owing to a mistake made respecting the rank of the Officer commanding the Boat; be this as it may, it seems probable that the Dutch do not admit of Strangers landing upon this Island least they should carry off some of those people which, for certain crimes, they Banish here for Life, as we were told was done by a Danish Ship a few years ago. But they might have a better reason for refusing our Boat to land, for it is not improbable but what there might be some English Seamen upon this Island whom they had sent from the Cape while we lay there, well knowing that if they came in my way I should take them on board; and this, I am told, is frequently done when any of His Majesty's Ships are in the Bay, for it is well known that the Dutch East India Ships are mostly mann'd by Foreigners.

13th and 14th April 1771

[At Anchor, Table Bay]
13th. Fresh breezes at South-West, and Cloudy, hazey weather, in the night Anchor'd here a Dutch Ship from Holland; she sail'd about 3 months ago in company with 2 more. The news brought by this Ship is that a War is dayley expected between England and Spain; Signals out for 4 or 5 Sail more being in the Offing, one of which is said to be a ship from England; took leave of the Gouvernour, intending to Sail to-morrow.

14th. Wind Westerly, gentle breezes. In the P.M. got all the Sick on board, many of whom are yet in a very bad state of health; 3 died here, but this loss was made up by the opportunity we had of compleating our full complement. In the morning unmoor'd and got ready for Sailing.

8th and 9th April 1771

[At Anchor, Table Bay]
8th. Gentle Breezes from the Westward. In the Night Anchor'd here the Europa, an English East Indiaman from Bengal, and in the Morning she saluted us with 11 Guns, which Complement we return'd.

9th. Little wind at South-West, with Foggy, hazey weather.  Employ'd making ready for Sea.

5th to 7th April 1771


[At Anchor, Table Bay]
5th. Var'ble light winds. Sail'd for Holland 3 Dutch Ships. Employ'd as above, and getting on board Provisions, etc.

6th. Gentle breezes, with some rain in the Night.

7th. Gentle breezes, and fine, pleasant weather; a Signal for some Ships being in the offing.


Joseph Banks Journal


7th. The Europa Indiaman Captn Pelley came into the Bay. Of the four French vessels which we found in this Harbour 3 are now saild and the fourth is ready for sea. Of them two were 64 Gun ships, the other a large Snow and the fourth which still remains a frigate. All these Came from the Isle de France for Provision, of which they carry away from hence a prodigious quantity and consequently must have many mouths to feed upon that Island, from whence it is probable they Meditate some stroke at our East Indian Settlements in the beginning of a future war; which however our India people are not at all alarmd at, trusting intirely to the vast standing armies which they constantly keep up, the support of which in the Bengall alone Costs 840000 eight hundred and forty thousand pounds a Year!
Mr De Bougainville pleasd with the Bea[u]ty of the Ladies of Otahite gave that Island the Name of Cypre. In his return home he touchd at Isle de France where the Person who went out with him in the character of Natural Historian was left and still remains. Otorroo the Indian whoom he brought from thence was known on board his ship by the name of Tootavee, a plain corruption of Bougainville, with whoom it may be suppos'd he meant to change names according to his Custom. This man is now at L'Isle de France, from whence a large ship is very soon to Sail and carry him back to his own countrey where she is to make a settlement, in doing which she must Necessarily follow the Tract of Abel Jansen Tasman and consequently if she does not discover Cooks Streights, which in all probability she will do, must make several discoveries on the Coast of New Zealand. Thus much the French who were here made no secret of. How necessary then will it be for us to publish an account of our voyage as soon as possible after our arrival if we mean that our own countrey shall have the Honour of our Discoveries! Should the French have publishd an account of Mr De Bougainvilles voyage before that of the second Dolphin how infallibly will they claim the Discovery of Cypre or Otahite as their own, and treat the Dolphins having seen it as a fiction, which we were enabled to set forth with some shew of truth as the Endeavour realy did See it, a twelvemonth however after Mr De Bougainville; which if England chuses to exert her Prior Claim to it, as she may hereafter do, if the French settle it may be productive of very disagreable consequences. See Account of Cape of Good Hope below.

1st to 4th April 1771

[At Anchor. Table Bay]
1st. In the P.M. I observed a dark, dence haze like a Fog bank in the South-East Horizon, and which clouds began to gather over the Table Mountain; certain signs of an approaching gale from the same Quarter, which about 4 o'clock began to blow with great voialance, and continued more or less so the Remainder of these 24 Hours, the Table Mountain cap'd with White Clouds all the time. The weather dry and clear.

2nd. First part fresh Gales at South-East, the remainder little wind and calms. In the P.M. sail'd for England the Duke of Gloucester Indiaman, who Saluted us at his departure. In the A.M. anchored here 2 Dutch Ships from Batavia, and a third at Anchor under Penguin Island in distress. Put on shore some Sick People.

3rd. Fine, pleasant weather. Some people on shore on Liberty to refresh; the rest Employ'd repairing Sails and overhauling the Rigging.

4th. Ditto Weather. Employ'd Painting the Ship and paying her sides.

Joseph Banks Journal
3rd. French Vessels
Theodosio seaman died very suddenly; he had enjoyd an uninterrupted state of Good health during all our times of sickness.

30th and 31st March 1771

[At Anchor, Table Bay]
30th. In the P.M. anchor'd here the Duke of Gloucester, English East India Ship from China. In the Evening a prodigious hard gale of wind came on at South-East, which continued till about 3 o'clock in the Morning. During the Gales the Table Mountains and Adjacent Hills were cap'd with Extraordinary while Clouds; the remainder of the Day light Airs and pleasant weather.

31st. Clear pleasant weather all this day. In the Morning we got on board a whole Ox, which we cut up and salted. I had eat ashore some of as good and Fat Beef as ever I eat in my life, and was told that I might have as good to salt; but in this I was very much disappointed. The one I got was thin and Lean, yet well taisted; it weighed 408 pounds.

Joseph Banks Journal
30th. Dr Solander after having been confind to his Bed or chamber ever since the 17 of this month with an irregularly intermitting fever and violent pains in his bowels, which alarmd me very much at several different times, this day came down stairs for the first time, very much emaciated by his tedious Illness.

27th and 29th March 1771

[At Anchor, Table Bay.]
27th. Winds variable and clear. Pleasant weather. Sailed for Holland 4 Sail Dutch Ships.

28th, 29th. Ditto weather. Employ'd fixing new Topmast and Backstays, repairing Sails, etc.

23rd to 25th March 1771

[At Anchor, Table Bay]
On the 23rd compleated our water, after which I gave as many of the People leave to go on shore to refresh themselves as could be spared at one time.

21st and 22nd March 1771

[At Anchor. Table Bay]
21st. Fine Pleasant Weather. Employ'd getting on board water, overhauling the rigging, and repairing Sails. Sail'd for Batavia a Dutch Ship.

22nd. Mostly Fine pleasant weather.

[Remarks on Dysentery]
Few remarks have hapned since we left Java Head that can be of much use to the Navigator, or any other Person, into whose hand this Journal may fall; such, however, as have occur'd I shall now insert. After our leaving Java head we were 11 days before we got the General South-East Trade wind, in which time we did not advance above 5 degrees to the South and 3 degrees to the West, having all the time Variable light Airs of Wind, interrupted by frequent Calms, the weather all the time hot and sultry, and the Air unwholesome, occasioned most probably by the Vast Vapours brought into these Latitudes by the Easterly Trade wind and Westerly Monsoons, both of which blow at this time of the Year in this Sea. The Easterly winds prevail as far as 12 or 10 degrees South, and the Westerly winds as far as 6 or 8 degrees; between them the winds are Variable, and I believe always more or less unwholesome, but to us it was remarkable from the Fatal Consequences that attended it, for whatever might be the cause of First bringing on the Flux among our people, this unwholesome Air had a Great share in it, and increased it to that degree that a Man was no sooner taken with it than he look'd upon himself as Dead. Such was the Despondency that reigned among the Sick at this time, nor could it be by any Means prevented, when every Man saw that Medicine, however skillfully Administered, had not the least effect. I shall mention what Effect only the immaginary approach of this disorder had upon one man. He had long tended upon the Sick, and injoyed a tolerable good State of Health; one morning, coming upon Deck, he found himself a little griped, and immediately began to stamp with his feet, and exclaim, "I have got the Gripes, I have got the Gripes; I shall die, I shall die!" In this manner he continued until he threw himself into a fit, and was carried off the Deck, in a manner, Dead; however he soon recover'd, and did very well.

We had no sooner got into the South-East Trade wind than we felt its happy Effect, tho' we lost several men after, but they were such as were brought so low and weak that there were hardly a possibility of there recovery; and yet some of them linger'd out in a State of Suspencemonth after, who, in all Probability, would not have lived 24 Hours before this Change hapned. Those that were not so far gone remained in the same state for some time, and at last began to recover; some few, however, were seized with the disorder after we got into the Trade wind, but they had it but slightly, and soon got over it. It is worth remarking, that of all those who had it in its last stage only one man lived, who is now in a fair way of recovering; and I think Mr. Banks was the only one that was cured at the first Attack'd that had it to a great degree, or indeed at all, before we got into the South-East Trade, for it was before that time that his Cure was happily effected.

It is to be wished, for the good of all Seamen, and mankind in general, that some preventative was found out against this disease, and put in practice in Climates where it is common, for it is impossible to Victual and water a Ship in those Climates but what some one article or another, according to different Peoples opinions, must have been the means of bringing on the Flux. We were inclinable to lay it to the water we took in at Princes Island, and the Turtle we got their, on which we lived several days; but there seems to be no reason for this when we consider that all the Ships from Batavia this Year suffer'd by the same disorder as much as we have done, and many of them arrived at this place in a far worse State; and yet not one of the Ships took any water in at Princes Island. The same may be said of the Harcourt Indiaman, Captain Paul, who sail'd from Batavia soon after our arrival, directly for the Coast of Sumatra; we afterwards heard that she, in a very short time, lost by Sickness above 20 men; indeed, this seem to have been a year of General Sickness over most parts of India, the Ships from Bengal and Madrass bring Melancholly Accounts of the Havock made there by the united force of Sickness and famine.

Some few days after we left Java we saw, for 3 or 4 evenings succeeding one another, boobies fly about the ship. Now, as these birds are known to roost every night on land they seem'd to indicate that some Island  as in our neighbourhood; probably it might be the Island Selam, which Islandfind differently laid down in different Charts, both in Name and Situation.

After the Boobies above mentioned left us we saw no more birds till we got nearly abreast of Madagascar, where, in the Latitude of 27 3/4 degrees, we saw an Albatross. After that time we saw more of these birds every day, and in greater numbers, together with several other sorts; one sort about as big as a Duck, of a very Dark brown Colour, with a yellowish bill. The number of these birds increased upon us as we approached the Shore. As soon as we got into Soundings we saw Gannets, which we continued to see as long as we were on the Bank, which stretches off Laguillas 40 Leagues, and Extends along shore to the Eastward from Cape False, according to some charts, 160 Leagues; the Extent of this Bank is not well known, however, it is useful in directing Shipping when to haul in to make the land.

19th and 20th March 1771

[At Anchor. Table Bay]
19th. Variable Gentle breezes. All this day employ'd repairing Sails, Rigging, Watering, etc.

20th. In the P.M. Sail'd the Houghton Indiaman, who saluted us with 11 Guns, which Complement we returned; this Ship, during her stay in India, lost by sickness between 30 and 40 men, and had at this time a good many down with the Scurvey. Other Ships suffer'd in the same proportion. Thus we find that Ships which have been little more than 12 months from England have suffer'd as much or more by Sickness than we have done, who have been out near 3 Times as long. Yet their sufferings will hardly, if att all, be mentioned or known in England; when, on the other hand, those of the Endeavour, because the Voyage is uncommon, will very probable be mentioned in every News Paper, and, what is not unlikely, with many Additional hardships we never Experienced; for such are the disposition of men in general in these Voyages that they are seldom content with the Hardships and Dangers which will naturally occur, but they must add others which hardly ever had existence but in their imaginations by magnifying the most Trifling accidents and circumstances to the greatest Hardships and unsurmountable dangers without the imediate interposition of Providence, as if the whole merit of the Voyage consisted in the Dangers and Hardships they underwent, or that real ones did not hapen often enough to give the mind sufficient anxiety. Thus Posterity are taught to look upon these Voyages as hazardous to the highest degree.

17th and 18th March 1771

[At Anchor. Table Bay]
17th. In the A.M. sail'd for England the Admiral Pocock, Captain Riddle, by whom I sent Letters to the Admiralty and Royal Society. About noon came on a hard, dry Gale from the South-East.

18th. In the P.M. anchored in the offing an English Ship, which proved to be the Houghton  from Bengal. In the A.M. it fell moderate, and we began to water the Ship.

15th and 16th March 1771

[At Anchor, Table Bay]
15th. Strong Gales at South-East all the Afternoon and most part of the Night, though in the Evening it fell a little moderate, which gave the Indiaman's Boat an opportunity to come on board us, with a Complement of a Basket of Fruit, etc,; she was the Admiral Pocock, Captain Riddell, homeward bound from Bombay. In the morning we got under sail, and stood into the Road, having variable light airs mostly from the Sea. A Dutch boat from the Shore came on board, in which were the Master Attendant and some other Gentlemen; the former directed us to a proper birth, where about 10 o'clock we anchored in 7 fathoms water, a Ouzey bottom; the Lyon Tail, or West point of the Bay, bore West-North-West, and the Castle South-West, distance 1 1/2 miles. I now sent a Petty Officer on shore to know if they would return our Salute, but before he return'd we Saluted, which was immediately return'd with the same number of Guns; after this I waited myself upon the Governour, who was pleased to tell me that I should have everything I wanted that the place afforded. My first care was to provide a proper place ashore for the reception of the Sick, for which purpose I order'd the Surgeon to look out for a House where they could be lodged and dieted. This he soon found, and agreed with the people of the house for 2 shillings a day per man; which I found was the customary Price and method of proceeding. I afterwards gave the Surgeon an order to superintend the whole.

16th. Variable light Airs all this day. Moor'd the Ship and Struck Yards and Topmast, and in the morning got all the Sick (28) ashore to Quarters provided for them, and got off fresh meat and Greens for the People on board.

Joseph Banks Journal
16th. Captn Riddle Saild this day for England.  Dr Solander who had been on board the Indiaman last night was this Morn taken violently ill with a fever and pain in his Bowels. A Countrey Physician was immediately sent for, who declard on hearing his Case that it was the common consequence of Batavia fevers, that the Dr would be much worse and would for some time suffer very much by his Bowel complaint, but upon the whole he declard that there was no danger. I could not however help being a good deal alarmd in my own opinion.

13th and 14th March 1771

[Table Bay]
13th. In the P.M., having the wind at South, we steer'd along shore West by South 1/2 South until 3 o'clock, when, finding this course carried us off from the land, we steer'd West by North; at 6 o'clock Cape Laguillas, or the high land over it, bore East by North 12 Leagues distance, and the westermost land in sight North-West 1/2 West. We continued a West by North course, with the wind at South-East until day light in the Morning, when we haul'd in North-West and North-West by North; at 8 the Cape of Good Hope North-West by North, and at 10 we were abreast of it, and distance off about 1 League or little more. We passed close without a rock, on which the Sea broke very high; it lies about a League right out to Sea from the Cape. After passing the Cape we kept along shore at the distance of about 1 League off, having a fresh Gale at South-East; at noon the Cape bore South-East, distance 4 Leagues. Latitude observed 34 degrees 15 minutes South, Longitude in, by our reckoning, corrected by the last observation, 341 degrees 7 minutes West, or 18 degrees 53 minutes East from Greenwich, by which the Cape lies in 34 degrees 25 minutes South Latitude, and 19 degrees 1 minute East Longitude from Greenwich, which nearly agrees with the observations made at the Cape Town by Messrs. Mason and Dixon in 1761; a proof that our observations have been well made, and that as such they may always be depended upon to a surprizing degree of accuracey. If we had had no such guide we should have found an error of 10 degrees 13 minutes of Longitude, or perhaps more to the East, such an effect the current must have had upon the ship.

14th. Winds at South-East, a fresh Gale, but as we approached the Lyons Tail or West point, Table Bay, we had flurries of wind from all Points of the Compass; this was occasioned by the high land, for clear of it the wind was still at South-East, and bbow'd so strong out of the Bay that we could not work the Ship in; we were therefore obliged to Anchor a good way without all the Ships at Anchor in the Road, in the whole 16 Sail, viz., 8 Dutch, 3 Danes, 4 French, a Frigate, and 3 Store Ships, and one English East Indiamen, who saluted us with 11 Guns; we returned 9. The Gale continued, which obliged us to lay fast all the morning.

Joseph Banks Journal
13th. Wind so fresh at SE that we could not attempt to go ashore; no boat indeed in the whole Harbour attempted to Stir--the Dutch Commodore Hauld down his broad Pennant a signal for all Boats belonging to him to keep on board. Jno Thomas died.

14th. Table Bay In the Morn moderate so that the Ship was got under way and steerd into the Harbour to her proper birth. A Dutch boat came on board to enquire from whence we came, and brought with her a Surgeon who examind our Sick and then gave leave for them and us to come ashore, which we accordingly did at Dinner time.

12th March 1771

[Off Cape Agulhas]
In the P.M. had the wind at South-East and East, with which we steer'd along shore West and West-South-West. At 6 Cape Laguillas* (* L'Agulhas.) bore West, distance 3 Leagues. At 8, the wind being then at South, we tack'd and stood off, being about 2 Leagues from the Cape, which bore about West-North-West. In this Situation had 33 fathoms water; the Wind continued between South-West and South all night, in times very Squally, with rain. At 2 a.m. tacked to the Westward until near 8, when we again stood off Cape Laguillas, North-West, distance 2 or 3 Leagues. At 9 the weather clear'd up, and the wind fix'd at South by West. We tack'd, and stood to the Westward. At Noon Cape Laguillas bore North-East by North, distant 4 Leagues. The land of this Cape is very low and sandy next the Sea; inland it is of a moderate height. Latitude 34 degrees 50 minutes South, Longitude 339 degrees 23 minutes West, or 20 degrees 37 minutes East, deduced from Yesterday's Observations. Wind East-South-East Southerly; course South 69 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 37 miles; Latitude 34 degrees 58 minutes South; longitude 339 degrees 30 minutes per Observation, 329 degrees 17 minutes per Reckoning.

Joseph Banks Journal
In the morn saw Cape Falso and soon after the Cape of Good Hope off which we observd a rock not laid down in the Charts; the breeze was fresh and fair, it carried us as far as Table Bay off which we anchord. In coming along shore we saw several smoaks upon the next hill before the Lions rump, and when at an anchor fires upon the side and near the top of the Table mountain. In the Bay were several ships, 4 French, 2 Danes, 1 English viz. the Admiral Pocoke Indiaman, and several Dutch.

9th to 11th March 1771

[Off Coast of Natal]
10th. In the P.M. had a light breeze at North-East until 4 o'clock, when it fell calm, and continued so until 11, at which time a breeze sprung up at West-North-West, with which we stood to the Northward. In the Morning found the Variation to be 22 degrees 46 minutes; at Noon the observ'd Latitude was 14 Miles to the Northward of the Log, which shews that the current must have shifted. Wind North-East Westerly; course North 17 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 55 miles; latitude 34 degrees 52 minutes South; longitude 337 degrees 25 minutes West per Observation, 327 degrees 12 minutes per Reckoning.

11th. First part light Airs at West; the remainder had a fresh gale at South-East, with which we steer'd West and West-North-West, in order to make the Land, which was seen from the Deck at 10 A.M. At Noon it extended from North-East to North-West, distant 5 Leagues; the middle appear'd high and mountainous, and the two Extremes low. Took several Observations of the Sun and Moon, which gave the Longitude, reduced to Noon, as per Column. Wind Ditto South-East; course North 85 degrees West; distance 79 miles; latitude 34 degrees 45 minutes South; longitude 338 degrees 48 minutes West per Observation, 328 degrees 35 minutes per Reckoning.

Joseph Banks Journal

10th.  In the morn the Water was clear and blue very unlike the muddy complexion it had yesterday. At 10 the Land was seen which provd to be to the Eastward of Cape Das Aguillas: it appeard low and sandy near the shore with high land rising behind it inland resembling very some parts of New Holland. In the Evening Cape das Aguilas was not more than 6 Leagues off so that we doubted not at all of being round it before morn, at night fall however the wind came right ahead and threatned a gale.

11th.  All last night the wind was foul, the Current however assisted us a little. In the morn the water was clear but we saw Gannetts and Albatr[o]sses; soon after the wind favourd and we got round Cabo das Aguillas when we had the water again very thick and foul with many birds about the ship. At night were abreast of the high land between Cabo das Aguillas and Cabo Falzo; the water was as full of shining insects as we have seen it in the Voyage. In the day several fires were seen ashore.

7th to 9th March 1771

[Off Coast of Natal]
7th. Cloudy, hazey weather; winds varying between the South-West by South and South-East by South; a light breeze at 1 p.m. Tack'd, and stood to the Westward, land at North, distant about 8 Leagues. At 6 saw it extending from North by West to West by North, distant 5 or 6 Leagues; at 8 tack'd, and stood to the Eastward till 12; then again to the Westward, standing 4 hours on one tack, and 4 on the other. At Noon very cloudy; had no observation; saw the land extending from North by West to West by North. Wind Southerly; course South 156 degrees 5 minutes West; distance 72 miles; latitude 32 degrees 54 minutes South; longitude 331 degrees 56 minutes West per Observation, 323 degrees 54 per Reckoning.

8th. In the P.M. stood to the Westward, with the wind at South by West until 4 o'clock; then again to the Eastward, having the land in sight, extending from North-North-East to West by North, distant 8 Leagues. At 12 the wind veer'd to the Eastward, and before Noon blow'd a fresh breeze, with which we steer'd South-West. At 7, the land extending from North-North-West to East-North-East, distant 10 or 12 Leagues, found the Variation by the Amplitude to be 28 degrees 30 minutes West, and by an Azimuth 28 degrees 8 minutes West. At Noon Latitude observ'd 34 degrees 18 minutes, which is 93 miles to the Southward of that given by the Log, or dead reckoning since the last observation. Wind Easterly; course South 39 1/2 degrees West; distance 109 miles; latitude 34 degrees 18 minutes South; longitude 333 degrees 19 minutes West per Observation, 324 degrees 23 minutes per Reckoning.

9th. A steady, fresh Gale, and settled weather. At 4 in the P.M. had high land in sight, bearing North-East by North. At Noon had little wind and clear weather; the observed Latitude 46 miles to the Southward of the Log, which is conformable to what has hapned the 4 preceeding days; and by Observation made of the Sun and Moon this morning found that the Ship had gain'd 7 degrees 4 minutes West of the Log since the last observation, 13 days ago. Wind Ditto; course South 65 degrees West; distance 210 miles; latitude 35 degrees 44 minutes South; longitude 337 degrees 6 minutes West per Observation, 326 degrees 53 minutes per Reckoning.

Joseph Banks Journal
7th. Fair wind accompanied with clear weather. Over the land however, at least in that direction, hung clouds and appearances of rain as indeed was generaly the case. For these some days past the seamen have found the ship to be Drove hither and thither by currents in a manner totaly unacountable to them.

8th. Calmish. Many Birds were observd such as Albatrosses, black and grey Shearwaters cheifly setting upon the water. The surface was pretty thickly strewd with the substance that I have before often mentiond under the name of Sea Saw dust; the sea water likewise emitted a strong smell like that of Seaweeds rotting on the shore.

9th. Struck soundings today on the Cape Bank, the Water on it appeard thick and muddy; many Birds especialy Gannetts were seen about the ship. In the Night especialy the fore part of it a very heavy dew fell.

5th and 6th March 1771

[Off Coast of Natal]
5th. Fresh Gales from the South-South-West, with squally, rainy weather, with which we stood to the Westward. In the evening some people thought they saw the appearance of land to the Northward; but this appear'd so improbable that I, who was not on deck at this time, was not acquainted with it until dark, when I order'd them to sound, but found no ground with 80 fathoms, upon which we concluded that no land was near. But daylight in the Morning proved this to be a mistake by shewing us the land at the distance of about 2 Leagues off. We had now the wind at South-East, blowing fresh right upon the land. When we made the land we were standing to the Westward; but, thinking the other the best tack to get off on, we wore, and hauld off to the Eastward, and by Noon had got an Offing of about 4 Leagues, the land at this time extending from North-East by North to West-South-West.

This part of the Coast of Africa which we fell in with lies in about the Latitude of 32 degrees 0 minutes South, and Longitude 331 degrees 29 minutes West, and near to what is called in the Charts Point Nattall.* (* Natal.) It was a steep, craggy point, very much broke, and looked as if the high, craggy rocks were Islands. To the North-East of this point the land in General appear'd to rise, sloping from the Sea to a Moderate height; the Shore, alternately Rocks and Sands. About 2 Leagues to the North-East of the Point appear'd to be the mouth of a River, which probably may be that of St. Johns.

At this time the weather was very hazey, so that we had but a very imperfect view of the land, which did not appear to great advantage. Wind South-South-West to South-East; course per Log North 31 degrees West; distance 32 miles; latitude 31 degrees 5 minutes South per Observation, 31 degrees 7 minutes per Reckoning; longitude 331 degrees 19 minutes per Observation, 324 degrees 56 minutes per Reckoning.

6th. Moderate Gales, with hazey, rainy weather. Stood to the Eastward all the day, having the land in sight, which at 4 p.m. extended from North-East by North to South-West by West, distant 5 Leagues. At 6 in the Morning we could only see it at West distant 7 or 8 Leagues. At Noon found the Ship by Observation 90 Miles to the Southward of account. Thus far the current has carried us to the South since the last observation, which was only 2 days ago; but it is plain, from the position of the Coast, that we have been carried full as far to the West also, notwithstanding we have been standing all the time to the East-North-East* (* The ship was now in the Agulhas Current.) Wind Southerly; course South 54 degrees East; distance 37 miles; latitude 32 degrees 4 minutes South; 330 degrees 44 minutes per Observation, 323 degrees 36 minutes per Reckoning.

3rd and 4th March 1771

[Batavia to Capetown]
3rd. First part little wind; remainder Gentle gales and clear weather, and the Sea pretty smooth. Wind North-East; course South 58 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 71 miles; latitude 31 degrees 1 minute South; longitude 323 degrees 2 minutes West.

4th. In the P.M. had a moderate breeze, which continued until 5 o'clock in the A.M., when it fell calm, and soon after a breeze sprung up at South-West. In the Evening, and most part of the Night, the weather was dark and cloudy, with much Lightning to the Westward. Variation 25 degrees 35 minutes West. Winds North-East to South-West; course South 67 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 87 miles; latitude 31 degrees 54 minutes South; longitude 324 degrees 36 minutes West.

Joseph Banks Journal
3rd. Wind at SW with dirty foggy weather. In the evening some of the people thought that they saw Land but that opinion was rejected almost without examination, as the journals in the ship which had been kept by the Log were still above a hundred leagues and those which had been corrected by Observations of the sun and moon full 40. The night was cheifly calms and light breezes with fog and mist.

4th. Day broke and shewd us at its earliest dawn how fortunate we had been in the Calms of last night: what was then supposd to be land provd realy so and not above 5 miles from us, so that another hour would have infallibly have carried us upon it. But fortunate as we might think ourselves to be yet unshipwreckd we were still in extreme danger, the wind blew right upon the shore and with it a heavy sea ran which broke mountains high on the rocks with which it was every where lind, so that tho some in the ship thought it possible the major part did not hope to be able to get off. Our anchors and cables were accordingly prepard but the sea ran too high to allow us a hope of the Cables holding should we be drove to the Necessity of making use of them, and should we be drove ashore the Breakers gave us as little hope of saving even our lives: at last however after 4 hours spent in the vicissitudes of hope and fear we found that we got gradualy off and before night were out of Danger. The land from whence we so narrowly escapd is part of the Terra de Natal, laying between the rivers Sangue and Formis about 20 Leagues to the southward of the Bay of Natal. The shore seemd every where steep and rocky but the hills inland rose in gradual slopes spotted here and there with woods, and where it was not lookd Green and pleasant.

1st and 2nd March 1771

[Batavia to Capetown]
1st. Fresh Gales and Cloudy. Found the Bitts which secures the foot of the Bowsprit, loose; this obliged us to put before the wind until they were secured in the best manner our situation would admit; this done, we hauld our wind again to the Westward under the Courses and close Reef'd Topsails. Wind South-West to South by West; course South 86 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 71 miles; latitude 29 degrees 41 minutes South; longitude 320 degrees 26 minutes West.

2nd. First part fresh Gales and Cloudy; remainder little wind, with some few showers of rain; a Sea from the South-West. Wind Southerly; course South 60 degrees West; distance 80 miles; latitude 30 degrees 21 minutes South; longitude 321 degrees 46 minutes West.